But Richard, a great soldier, was very much in his element. Though he gained much glory, the Crusaders were unable to recapture Jerusalem or much of the former territory of the Latin Kingdom.
From that point on, they were only able to gain access to Jerusalem through diplomacy, not arms. In actuality, the crusades were responses to Muslim invasions on what was once land occupied primarily by Christians. At the same time they were professional soldiers, willing to spend long periods in the East.
They believed the Crusades had brought Western Europe higher standards of Eastern medicine and learning, Greek and Muslim culture, and such luxuries as silks, spices, and oranges. Should the unbiblical and un-Christ-like actions of supposed believers years ago still be held against Christians today?
Though popes, some zealous princes—including Edward I of England—and various religious and political thinkers continued to call for a Crusade to unite the warring armies of Europe and to deliver a smashing blow to Islam, later efforts were too small and too sporadic to do more than buy time for the Crusader states.
As a result, Islam did not confront a unified effort of resistance when it began to attack Christian lands. Beginning aboutseveral centuries of Viking raids disrupted life in northern Europe and even threatened Mediterranean cities.
His disciples only continued to follow his example. Islam posed the threat of a rival culture and religion, which neither the Vikings nor the Magyars had done.
In the eleventh century, this rivalry resulted in a military confrontation between the Fatimid Muslims and a new band of Sunni Muslims from the east. Frederick Barbarossa, old and famous, died in on the way to the Holy Land, and most of his armies returned to Germany following his death.
The taking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade had been just short of fatal to the Byzantine Empire, and it cast a blemish on the movement in the West, where there were critics of the whole concept of armed Crusades.
The Crusaders faced many obstacles. Armies composed of inexperienced nobles and peasants launched the First Crusade. It was the right message at the right time. Middle Eastern communities also preferred the lenient leadership of Muslims to the overzealous leadership of the Byzantine and Sassanid empires.
The siege of Jerusalem culminated in a bloody and destructive Christian victory in Julyin which many of the inhabitants were massacred.
Each army followed a chain of command and strategically attacked enemy territories. These four large armies of Godfrey, Raymond, Bohemond, and Hugh successfully snatched critical territories from the Seljuk Turk.
Nothing will ever equal the horror of this harrowing and terrible spectacle. Deeds such as this would inspire future nobles to lead their own crusades, but often for different motives. But in Saladin inflicted a major defeat on a combined army at Hattin and subsequently took Jerusalem.
On the other hand, to hold territory under a Christian banner so far from home, given the contemporary conditions of transport and communication, was impressive. Thus the Crusades are an important early part of the story of European expansion and colonialism.
They wanted to maintain their privileged position and to enjoy the lives of European nobles in a new setting. The fourth crusade led to the sacking of Constantinople, where a Latin Kingdom of Byzantium was set up in and lasted for about 60 years.
InMuslims beheaded a [Christian] monk who had converted from Islam and plundered the Bethlehem monastery of Saint Theodosius, killing many more monks. Subsequently the Venetians gained a monopoly on Byzantine trade. Trade passed through Italian hands to Western Europe at a handsome profit.
Note that both empires had become exhausted from years of battling with each other. Some wandered far enough to reach territories under the control of the Seljuk Turks. Some members of these armies fought with unintended factions.
The French army was more fortunate, but it also suffered serious casualties during the journey, and only part of the original force reached Jerusalem in Some groups within the army fought with unintended adversaries, including the Hungarians. Since the base of Muslim power had shifted to Egypt, Louis did not even march on the Holy Land; any war against Islam now fit the definition of a Crusade.
It attracted no European kings and few major nobles, drawing mainly lesser barons and their followers. To summarize briefly, the crusades were attempts by "Christians" in the 10th through 12th centuries A. On one hand, there was a new knowledge of the East and the possibilities of trade to be found there, not to mention the spread of Christianity.
The Christian Crusades were attempts to retake lands stolen by the Muslim invaders centuries earlier. The second major phase of the First Crusade came.Christian Pilgrims once were allowed to Jerusalem for a toll but they were robbed, killed, beaten, etc. There were reports of violent attacks on the Christian pilgrims.
The Muslims in the other had their own reason that made more sense that the Crusade was unjustified. Nobody seriously expected the Crusaders to succeed in their mission. The fact that they did is one of the most unlikely events in history. But having won, instead of handing back the reclaimed territory to the Byzantines, the Crusaders instead claimed sovereignty themselves.
Economically, the Crusaders went on this journey in order to gain the land of Jerusalem from the Muslims (doc.1). Land was their wealth. Socially, the knights went because there was a general restlessness in the air so they went for the adventure.
The serfs went because of. Most of the Crusaders returned to Europe after this victory, those who remained in the Holy Land (Jerusalem) set up four Christian states. Who was the European Christian leader who helped end the Crusades?
True, while the crusaders were able to take back Jerusalem, their success was tainted by the undisciplined soldiers acts of violence. JOIN THE DISCUSSION. This article has 1 comment. wondering where you got your information from and if you know of any two historians with conflicting opinions about the success of the crusades.
The Crusades, attempting to check this advance, initially enjoyed success, founding a Christian state in Palestine and Syria, but the continued growth of Islamic states ultimately reversed those gains.Download