Overall then, rule utilitarian can allow departures from rules and will leave many choices up to individuals. Another scenario suggests that abortion is immoral but when life of a mother is in danger, it should be allowed. It would be wrong, for example, for a parent to injure children who are running in a school race in order to increase the chances that their own children will win.
In response, actual consequence utilitarians reply that there is a difference between evaluating an action and evaluating the person who did the action. It is my opinion that abortion, completed early enough in a pregnancy, is not an unethical act and should not be considered to be a decision that is immoral.
Fletcher said we should not get rid of rules - they are a useful guide in most situations. One the actual consequence view says that to act rightly is to do whatever produces the best consequences. If they had to worry that doctors might use their organs to help other patients, they would not, for example, allow doctors to anesthetize them for surgery because the resulting loss of consciousness would make them completely vulnerable and unable to defend themselves.
For that reason, act utilitarians argue, we should apply the utilitarian principle to individual acts and not to classes of similar actions. Utilitarian viewpoint on abortion essay is not possible for absentee parents or strangers to provide individual children with all that they need.
What would a kind, temperate, courageous person do? While rule utilitarians can defend partiality, their commitment to maximizing overall utility also allows them to justify limits on the degree of partiality that is morally permissible.
Rule utilitarians generalize from this type of case and claim that our knowledge of human behavior shows that there are many cases in which general rules or practices are more likely to promote good effects than simply telling people to do whatever they think is best in each individual case.
Moreover, they say, rule utilitarianism Utilitarian viewpoint on abortion essay recognize justifiable partiality to some people without rejecting the commitment to impartiality that is central to the utilitarian tradition. This brings abortion into a more deontological discussion because the question is if the fetus has a claim on the fundamental rule that people have a right to life.
These moral ideas are often invoked in reasoning about morality, but critics claim that neither rule nor act utilitarianism acknowledge their importance. According to rule utilitarians, a a specific action is morally justified if it conforms to a justified moral rule; and b a moral rule is justified if its inclusion into our moral code would create more utility than other possible rules or no rule at all.
The following cases are among the commonly cited examples: Because act utilitarianism approves of actions that most people see as obviously morally wrong, we can know that it is a false moral theory.
In other words, we can maximize the overall utility that is within our power to bring about by maximizing the utility of each individual action that we perform.
Utilitarian theory does not endorse such theories because greatest principle of happiness suggests that abortion does not make most people very happy.
While the content of this rule is not impartial, rule utilitarians believe it can be impartially justified. Traditionally in Hindu culture, when considering circumstances where abortion is a possible solution to a problem, it is usually found that the procedure is not the appropriate response to the situation and aborting the baby would have negative social and spiritual consequences.
This contains fourteen articles, including essays defending utilitarianism by R. The principle of utility, then, is used to evaluate rules and is not applied directly to individual actions.
Mill and Utilitarian Moral Theory J. A yield sign permits drivers to go through without stopping unless they judge that approaching cars make it dangerous to drive through the intersection.
For example, Natural Law holds that abortion in ectopic pregnancies is wrong. How could this be something that a utilitarian would support?
According to Singer, a person should keep donating money to people in dire need until the donor reaches the point where giving to others generates more harm to the donor than the good that is generated for the recipients.
Edited by William Parent. Pros and Cons Unlike act utilitarians, who try to maximize overall utility by applying the utilitarian principle to individual acts, rule utilitarians believe that we can maximize utility only by setting up a moral code that contains rules.
If you enjoy chocolate but hate vanilla, you should choose chocolate for the pleasure it will bring and avoid vanilla because it will bring displeasure. Utilitarian reasoning can be used for many different purposes.
Chapter 2 discusses Bentham, Mill, and Sidgwick while chapter 6 focuses on act and rule utilitarianism. Situation Ethics Situation Ethics grew out of a tradition that viewed abortion as an evil act.
Being able to trust other people is extremely important to our well-being. This is a very clear description of utilitarianism, including explanations of arguments both for and against.
If the foetus was a person, it would surely be more courageous to prevent their being killed. Actual Consequences or Foreseeable Consequences? Imagine an ectopic prenancy - the foetus is growing in the fallopian tube, and both the mother and foetus will die.
The key difference between act and rule utilitarianism is that act utilitarians apply the utilitarian principle directly to the evaluation of individual actions while rule utilitarians apply the utilitarian principle directly to the evaluation of rules and then evaluate individual actions by seeing if they obey or disobey those rules whose acceptance will produce the most utility.
If more good can be done by helping strangers than by purchasing things for oneself or people one personally cares about, then act utilitarianism requires us to use the money to help strangers in need. Act utilitarians may sometimes support the intentional punishment of innocent people, but rule utilitarians will understand the risks involved and will oppose a practice that allows it.This essay will be taking a critical look at the risk of adopting Utilitarianism on the topic of abortion and how free will and uninfluenced will, will affect this stance.
Abortion is defined as the termination of a pregnancy, therefore ending or terminating the life of the fetus prematurely (Webster dictionary). This widely reprinted article, though it does not focus on utilitarianism, uses utilitarian reasoning and has sparked decades of debate about moral demandingness and moral impartiality.
In a challenging essay, Lyons raises doubts about whether there is any coherent version of utilitarianism.
This paper intends to discuss the issue of abortion along with examining what utilitarian scholars think on the abortion and several other related issues. Utilitarian view on abortion While examining the utilitarian’s view about abortion one should mull over the ethical aspect of the issue with perspective of greatest happiness.
Contained within are statistics on social and economic benefits of abortion and the Utilitarian viewpoint for abortion is explained. Abortion is an essential part of living in the modern world. Today, we expect people to be able to. More Essay Examples on Ethics Rubric. John Stuart mill is known as father of utilitarian view and it is not possible to understand the issue in.
Utilitarianism is the thought that actions are right if they benefit or bring happiness to a majority of the population. A utilitarian’s view on abortion could be that it .Download